What is orphanage tourism, and why is it problematic? There are more than 8 million children and adolescents living in orphanages and similar institutions today - 80% of them have a living parent who could care for them. Why is this the case? In this unit, we will take a look at the economic side of the orphanage tourism industry, an industry that today is worth $173 billion, and the role that volunteers from abroad play in sustaining it. Using Nepal, one of the most popular destinations for orphanage tourism, as a country study, this unit will illustrate how orphanage volunteering can negatively impact local communities and why it is increasingly considered by some countries to be a form of human trafficking. In addition, we will take a closer look at what human trafficking means in our modern world, and how the orphanage industry can be understood within this context.